BHOPAL

Bhopal  is the Capital of Madhya Pradesh Tourism or Madhya Pradesh State. Bhopal was founded in 11th century by the Paramara king Bhoja, who ruled from his capital at Dhar. This theory states that Bhopal was originally known as Bhojpal after a dam (pal) constructed by the king’s minister. No archaeological evidence, inscriptions or historical texts support the claim about an earlier settlement founded by Bhoja at the same place, although the Bhojeshwar Temple ascribed to him exists at Bhojpur, which is 28 km from Bhopal.

Bhopal became a princely state after signing a treaty with the British East India Company in 1818. Between 1819 and 1926, the state was ruled by four women, Begums — unique in the royalty of those days — under British suzerainty. Qudsia Begum was the first woman ruler (between 1819-1837), who was succeeded by her granddaughter, Shah Jehan. Between the years 1844-1860, when Shah Jehan was a child, her mother Sikandar (only daughter of Qudsia) ruled as regent, and was then recognized as ruler in 1860. She ruled until 1868, when Shah Jehan succeeded her and was Begum until 1901. In 1901, Shah Jehan’s daughter KaikhusrauJahan became Begum, ruled until 1926, and was the last of the female line of succession. In 1926, she abdicated in favor of her son, Hamidullah Khan, who ruled until 1947, and was the last of the sovereign Nawabs.The rule of Begums gave the city its waterworks, railways, a postal system, and a municipality constituted in 1907. Bhopal is also called city of Nawab’s.

Bhopal State was the second-largest Muslimruled princely state: the first being Hyderabad. After the independence of India in 1947, the last Nawab expressed his wish to retain Bhopal as a separate unit. Agitations against the Nawab broke out in December 1948, leading to the arrest of prominent leaders including Shankar Dayal Sharma. Later, the political detainees were released, and the Nawab signed the agreement for Bhopal’s merger with the Union of India on 30 April 1949. The Bhopal state was taken over by the Union Government of India on 1 June 1949.

Things To do

The construction of the Mosque was initiated during the reign of the Mughal EmperorBahadur Shah Zafar by Nawab Shah Jahan Begum (1844–1860 and 1868–1901) of Bhopal (Wife of Baqi Mohammad Khan) and continued to be built by her daughter Sultan Jahan Begum, till her lifetime. The mosque was not completed due to lack of funds, and after a long lay-off after the War of 1857, construction was resumed in 1971 by great efforts of Allama Mohammad Imran Khan NadwiAzhari and MaulanaSayedHashmat Ali Sahab of Bhopal. The construction was completed by 1985 and the entrance (eastern) gate was renovated grandly using ancient motifs from circa 1250 Syrian mosques by the contribution of the Emir of Kuwait to commemorate the memory of his departed wife.

                                    Mosque has a pink facade topped by two 18-storey high octagonal minarets with marble domes. The Mosque also has three huge bulbous domes, an impressive main hallway with attractive pillars and marble flooring resembling Mughal architecture the likes of “Jama Masjid in Delhi” and the huge “ Badshahi Mosque of Lahore”. It has a courtyard with a large tank in the centre. It has a double-storeyed gateway with four recessed archways and nine cusped multifold openings in the main prayer hall. The Quibla wall in the prayer hall is carved with eleven recessed arches and has fine screens of trellis work. The massive pillars in the hall hold 27 ceilings through squinted arches of which 16 ceilings are decorated with ornate petaled designs.

AalmiTablighiIjtima is an annual three-day congregation that draws people from all over the world. It was held at Taj-ul-Masajid until it was shifted outside the city due to shortage of space.Being one of the biggest festivals of Islam, And Bhopal having a large number of muslim population, It is celebrated with Pomp and Show, making it a festival worth watching in a lifetime. When we talk about the Lakes the first city that comes in  my mind is Bhopal it is also called “City Of Lakes” .

 Indira Gandhi RashtriyaManavSangrahalaya (IGRMS) or National Museum of Humankind or Museum of Man is an anthropology museum located in Bhopal, to present an integrated story of the evolution of manand culture with special reference to India. It spreads over an area of about 200 acres on the Shyamla Hills in the city. This museum depicts the story of mankind in time and space. Located on Bhopal’s upper lake, ‘RashtriyaManavSangrahalaya‘ can be accessed either from Lake View Road or from another road near Demonstration School. IGRMS has a few permanent exhibitions, broadly categorized as a) Open-exhibitions, b) Indoor galleries (Veethi-Sankul and Bhopal Gallery) and c) Periodical/ Temporary exhibitions. It also has other exhibitions categorized as 1. Online exhibitions, 2.Travelling exhibitions, 3.Special exhibitions and 4.Ongoing exhibitions.

IGRMS offers 17 categories of evolution to see, to better understand the Human Evolution.

Situated behind Shaukat Mahal on the banks of the Upper Lake is Gohar Mahal, which is an architectural gem dating back to the times of Kudsia Begum, also known as Gohar Begum, who built this sprawling palace in 1820. The Mahal is a magnificent expression of the fusion of Hindu and Mughal architecture.

The Upper Lake is divided from the Lower Lake by an overbridge. M. P. Tourism’s Boat Club on the Upper Lake provides facilities for exciting trips by sail, paddle and motor boats.

Bharat Bhavan is an autonomous multi-arts complex and museum in Bhopal,  established and funded by the Government of Madhya Pradesh. Opened in 1982, facing the Upper Lake, Bhopal, it houses an art gallery, a fine art workshop, an open-air amphitheatre, a studio theatre, an auditorium, a museum tribal and folk art, libraries of Indian poetry, classical music as well as folk music.

It was established and funded by the Department of Culture, Government of Madhya Pradesh, though it is run by an autonomous a 12-member Bharat Bhavan Trust. In the following decade of its Foundation, the institution grew to become an important cultural institution of India as it started attracting artists, scholars and students from Indore, Jabalpur, Mumbai, Kolkata and even foreign visitors.

he complex includes an art gallery of Indian painting and sculpture, a fine art workshop, an open-air amphitheatre (Bahirang), a studio theatre (Abhirang), an auditorium (Antarang), a museum tribal and folk art, libraries of Indian poetry, classical music as well as folk music. Besides this, Bhavan hosts artists and writers under its artist-in-residence program at the “Ashram“. Over the years, it has become a popular tourist attraction.

Some of the wings includes.

  • Roopankar – Museum of Fine Art: Gallery of contemporary folk and tribal art, and a modern art gallery. Graphic art workshop, and ceramics art workshop
  • Rangmandal – theatre repertory
  • Vagarth – center of Indian poetry, library, archive, and translation centre
  • Anhad – library of classical and folk music, audio and video archives, organizes dance recitals and classical music series like, Parampara, Saptak
  • Chhavi – center of classical cinema
  • NiralaSrijanpeeth – the chair for creative writing, founded by the Government of Madhya Pradesh.

Declared a national park in 1983, it covers an area of about 4.45 km2. Although it has the status of a national park, Van Vihar is developed and managed as a modern zoological park, following the guidelines of the Central Zoo Authority. The animals are kept in their near natural habitat. Most of the animals are either orphaned brought from various parts of the state or those, which are exchanged from other zoos. No animal is deliberately captured from the forest.VanVihar is unique because it allows easy access to the visitors through a road passing through the park, security of animals assured from poachers by building trenches and walls, chain-link fence and by providing natural habitat to the animals.

About Two decades Back, it was decided to provide this area a legal umbrella under the Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972. A committee of experts was constituted to decide the modalities for constitution of this area as a Protected Area. An area of 4.4521 km2 was declared to be a national park in 1983 as per the committee’s recommendation. Out of the 4.4521 km2 of land, an area 3.8839 km2 was government revenue land and rest belonged to the villagers of Prempura, Dharampuri and Amkheda. A compensation of Rs. 23.52 lakhs was paid to villagers to acquire 0.5692 km2 of private holdings. After the constitution of National Park, such acquired area was enclosed in succession with stonewall and chain link fence.

Van Viharcategorises animals in two categories, Captive and Herbivores. All carnivorous animals are kept inside enclosed areas and herbivores are allowed to roam freely.

Captives

The animals such as Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lions, wild cats, Indian Wolf, Sloth Bear, Red Fox, Indian Jackal, Wild Dog, Mongoose, Striped Hyena, Mugger Crocodile, Gharial, Snakes, Python etc., are kept in captivity in a system of kraal and enclosures in lines of modern concept of zoo management as per the norms of Central Zoo Authority. All felids and hyenas are fed with buffalo meat, mutton and poultry. Bears are provided with milk, vegetables and fruits to make a balanced diet.

Herbivores

Free ranging animals, such as Cheetal, Sambhar, Blackbuck, Blue bull, Nilgai, Chausingha, Wild Boar, Porcupine, Hare, Rhesus Macaque, Red Monkey, Common Langur, etc. are unique features of Van Vihar. There are no enclosures for them except the outer boundaries of Van Vihar. Normally the grass and other plant species growing in Van Vihar are sufficient for these herbivores. However, in summer when the grass is scarce, green fodder produced in the fodder farm and wheat husk procured from the market is provided as a supplement. In its Aquatic Ponds, Star Tortoises, Turtles, and a variety of fishes can be found.

Van Vihar also preserves animals belonging to endangered species.

Avian fauna

The wilderness of park offers an ideal habitat for a number of avian fauna. Till now about two hundred species of birds have been listed in different parts of Van Vihar.Large number of birds frequent this park, especially during winter the migratory waterfowl alight in great numbers in the adjoining extensive wetland of big lake. In the 2010s, the park developed a vulture breeding centre which initially focused on restoring populations of Oriental white-backed vultures (Gyps bengalensis), and long billed vultures(Gyps indicus). The park is also the abode of a variety of butterflies and insects.

Tale to be heard

On December 1984, a Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal leaked around 32 tons of toxic gases, including Methyl Isocyanate (MIC) gas which led to the worst industrial disaster to date. The official death toll was initially recorded around 4,000. A Madhya Pradesh government report stated 3,787 deaths, while other estimates state the fatalities were significantly higher (16,000) from the accident and the medical complications caused by the accident in the weeks and years that followed. The higher estimates have been challenged. The impact of the disaster continues to this day in terms of psychological and neurological disabilities, blindness, skin, vision, breathing, and birth disorders. The soil and ground water near the factory site have been contaminated by the toxic wastes. The Bhopal disaster continues to be the part of the socio-political debate; the clean-up of environmental contamination and rehabilitation of those affected continues to challenge the people of Bhopal. December 3rd is annually observed as the official day of mourning, and every year, all government offices in Bhopal are closed.For the victims, the disaster is still ongoing.

“Till date there has been no scientific comprehensive assessment done to ascertain how far and how deep the chemicals have seeped. As per earlier studies, poisonous chemicals have contaminated drinking water for several kilometers north and north-east to the factory affecting 22 communities. But now our research shows 10 more communities are affected due to poor quality of water,” said RachnaDhingra of the Bhopal Group for Information and Action

Economy

The major industries in the old city are electrical goods, medicinal, cotton, chemicals and jewellery. Other industries include cotton and flour milling, cloth weaving and painting, as well as making matches, sealing wax, and sporting equipment. The residents of Bhopal also engage in large retail businesses. Handicrafts, like Zardozi and Batua (a small string purse, usually used with Indian traditional dresses) are some of the products of the Old City.

Bhopal is also home to the DB Corp, informally called the Bhaskar Group (named after its major publication DainikBhaskar, a ₹17 billion business conglomerate with strong presence in media. Its head office is located in MaharanaPratap Nagar. Manjul Publishing House, located in the old city, is a major publishing house made famous by the translation of the Harry Potterseries of novels into Hindi.

Industries

  • Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India, has a unit in Bhopal. It occupies a large area in the Eastern Part of the city and maintains a suburb named after it. A majority of the residents of the BHEL Suburb are employed by the unit.
  • Mandideep is an industrial suburb of Bhopal. It is located to the south of the city on the NH 12.Mandideep’s total exports are worth some 2,300 crore rupees ($500m; £300m) per year, making it the largest industrial area in Madhya Pradesh. The town is home to Hindustan Electo Graphite (HEG), owning the largest graphite electrode plant in the world and is the largest industrial company in the entire state. Hindustan Electro Graphite (HEG) and Lupin Laboratories ltd. are the dominant companies in the suburb, each exports worth around 900 crore rupees. Apart from that, Mandideep also houses the manufacturing plant of Makson group of company, Eicher Tractors for the oldest tractor manufacturers in India.

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